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Cyphomyrmex minutus Mayr
Cyphomyrmex minutus, full face view of a worker
(click image to enlarge).
Photo courtesy of
Cyphomyrmex minutus, profile view of a worker
(click image to enlarge).
Photo courtesy of

Cyphomyrmex is in the Attini tribe and is related to Atta and Trachymyrmex, which are also found in the southern United States.

Small (head width 0.56 or less-according to Snelling and Longino 1992), monomorphic ants that vary in color from dull light brown to blackish brown. The frontal lobes are conspicuous and expanded laterally and cover the antennal bases as well as much of the front of the head (see photo above, frontal view). The eyes are well developed. Mandibles with five teeth. Antennae11- segmented, lacking an apical club. Body is strongly sculptured with rounded tubercles present on the dorsum of the alitrunk (see photo of side view of worker above). Numerous appressed, scale-like hairs present on the body and appendages. This species is similar to C. rimosus, which is an exotic species in the US and native to the Neotropics. Cyphomyrmex rimosus is larger with its head width being wider than 0.62 mm and hairs on the first gastral tergite are not completely appressed and are separated by less than their own lengths, whereas the head width of C. minutus is less than 0.56 mm and hairs in center of first gastral tergite are closely appressed and usually separated by more than their own lengths (Snelling and Longino 1992). I examined specimens of both species at the collection in Gainesville, FL and had a hard time telling them apart, but I did not have an ocular micrometer to measure head widths.

Common Names
Fungus growing ant

Biology and Economic Importance
Similar to other Attines, Cyphomyrmex, grows subterranean fungus gardens, which are grown on a substrate of vegetable matter and dead insects.

According to Snelling and Longino (1992) this species ranges from central TX to FL, and southward through Central America to northern South America.

Literature Cited
Snelling, R. R. and J. T. Longino. 1992. Revisionary notes on the fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex, rimosus-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Attini). Pages 479-494 in Quintero, D. and A. Aiello. Insects of Panama and Mesoamerica: selected studies. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 692 pp.

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