References

A-B C D-F G H-I J-L M-P Q-R S T U V W-Z

Baroni Urbani, C. and M. L. de Andrade. 2003.  The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Monografie 36:  1-480. 

Baroni Urbani, C. and M. L. De Andrade. 2007. The ant tribe Dacetini: Limits and constituent genera, with descriptions of new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) 99: 1-191.

Bolton, B. 1977. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Oreintal and Indo-Australian regions, and in Australia. Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 36:67-151.

Bolton, B. 1979. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region and in the New World. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 38: 129-181

Bolton, B. 1994.  Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.  222 pp.

Bolton, B. 1995. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Bolton, B. 2000.  The Ant Tribe Dacetini.  Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute.  Vol. 65, part 1-2. 

Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71: 1-370.

Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher, and P. S. Ward. 2006.  Evaluating alternative hypotheses fro the early evolution and diversification of ants.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.  103:  18172-18177. 

Brown, W. 1979.  A remarkable new species of Proceratium, with dietary and other notes on the genus (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae).  Psyche 86: 337-346. 

Buren, W. F. 1968.  A review of the species of Crematogaster, sensu stricto, in North America (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae).  Part II.  Descriptions of new species. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 3:  91-121.

Carter, W.G. 1962. Ant distribution in North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Science Society, 78:150-204.

Creighton, W. S. 1930. The New World species of the genus Solenopsis (Hymenop. Formicidae). Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 66: 39-151 + 7 plates.

Creighton, W.S. 1950.  The Ants of North America. Bulletin: Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:  1-585. 

Cole, A. C. 1940. A guide to the ants of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Tennessee. The American Midland Naturalist 24: 1-88.

Cole, A. C. 1953. A checklist of ants of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science. 28: 34-35.

Cuezzo, F. 2000. Revisión del género Forelius (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae:  Dolichoderinae).  Sociobiology 35: 197-277.

Dash, S. T. 2004. Species Diversity and Biogeography of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana, with Notes on their Ecology. M.S. Thesis, Louisiana State University, 290 pp.

Davis, L. R. and M. Deyrup. 2006. Solenopsis phoretica, a new species of apparently parasitic ant from Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 89: 141-143.

Deyrup, M. 1988. First record of Epitritus from North America (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 71:217–218.

Deyrup, M. 2003. An updated list of Florida ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 86: 43-48. 

Deyrup, M. 2006. Pyramica boltoni, a new species of leaf-litter inhabiting ant from Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dacetini). Florida Entomologist 89: 1-5. 

Deyrup, M. and S. Cover. 1998.  Two new species of Smithistruma Brown (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae) from Florida.  Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington  100: 214-221. 

Deyrup, M. and S. Cover. 2004.  A new species of the ant genus Leptothorax from Florida with a key to Leptothorax of the Southeast (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae).  Florida Entomologist 87: 51-59. 

Deyrup, M. and S. Cover. 2004.  A new species of Odontomachus ant (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae) from inland ridges of Florida, with a key to Odontomachus of the United State.  Florida Entomologist 87: 136-144.

Deyrup, M. and Cover. 2004. A new species of Crematogaster from the pinelands of the southeastern United States, pp. 100-112. In Snelling, R. R., B. L. Fisher, and P. S. Ward (eds). Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E. O. Wilson-50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 80.

Deyrup, M. and D. Lubetazzi. 2001.  A new species of ant (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae) from North Florida.  Entomological News 112: 15-21. 

Deyrup, M., S. Cover, and L. Davis. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126 293-325.

Deyrup, M., L. Davis, and S. Cover. 2003. The Ponerine Ants (Formicidae: Ponerinae) of the United States. Draft. 63 pp.  

Deyrup, M., C. Johnson, G. C. Wheeler, and J. Wheeler. 1989. A preliminary list of the ants of Florida. Florida Entomologist 72: 91-101.

DuBois, M. B. 1986.  A revision of the native New World species of the ant genus Monomorium (minimum group) (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae).  The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 53: 65-119. 

Dubois, M. and L. R. Davis.  1998.  Stenamma foveolocephalum (= S. carolinense) rediscovered (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Sociobiology 32: 125-138.

Echols, H. W. 1964. Gnamptogenys hartmani (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) discovered in Louisiana. Annuals of the Entomological Society of America 57: 137.

Fisher, B. L. and S. P. Cover. 2007. Ants of North America: A Guide to the Genera. University of California Press. Los Angelos, CA. 194 pages.

Forster, J. A. 2003.  The Ants (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae) of Alabama. M.S. Thesis, University of Auburn, AL, 224 pp.

General, D. M. and L. C. Thompson. 2007. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Arkansas Post National Memorial. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 61: 59-64.

General, D. M. and L. C. Thompson. 2008.  New distributional records of ants in Arkansas.  Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 62:  148-150. 

General, D. M and L. C. Thompson.  2009.  New distributional records of ants for 2008.  Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 63:  182-184.  

Glancey, B. M., D. P. Wojcik, C. H. Craig, and J. A. Mitchell. 1976. Ants of Mobile County, AL., as monitored by bait transects. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 11: 191-197.

Gregg, R. E. 1958.  Key to the species of Pheidole of the United States. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 66:  7-48.

Hansen, L. D., and J. H. Klotz. 2005.  Carpenter ants of the United States and Canada.  Cornell University Press.  Ithaca, N. Y.  i-xii+204 pp. 

Hill, J. G. 2006. Environmental Variables Affecting Ant Community Composition in Mississippi's Black Belt Prairie and Flatwoods Regions. Masters Thesis, Mississippi State University. 72 pp.

Hölldobler, B., and E.O. Wilson. 1990.  The Ants.  Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.  732 pp.

Ipser, R.M., M.A. Brinkman, W.A. Gardner, and H.B. Peeler. 2004. A survey of the ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Georgia. Florida Entomologist, 87:253-260.

Johnson, C. 1988. Species identification in the eastern Crematogaster. Journal of Entomological Science 23: 314-322.

Kallal, R. J. and J. S. LaPolla. 2012. Monograph of Nylanderia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the World, Part II: Nylanderia in the Nearctic. Zootaxa 3508: 1-64.

King, J. R. and W. R. Tschinkel. 2007. Range expansion and local pupulation increase of the exotic ant, Pheidole obscurithorax, in the southeastern United States (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 90: 435-439.

Lapolla, J. S., S. G. Brady, and S. O. Shattuck. 2010. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Prenolepis genus-group of ants (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae).  Systematic Entomology 35: 118-131.

Lattke, J. E. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Gnamptogenys in the New World (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 4:137-193.

Lessard, J.-P.,  R. R. Dunn, and N. J. Sanders. 2007. Rarity and diversity in forest ant assemblages of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Southeastern Naturalist 1: 215-228. 

Lowe, S. Browne, M., Boudjelas, S. and De Poorter, M. 2004. 100 of theWorld's Worst Invasive Alien species: A Selection from the Global Invasive Species Database, Gland,Switzerland: Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Lubertazzi, D. and W. Tschinkel. 2003. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods.  Journal of Insect Science. 3:21. 

MacGown, J. A.  2005.  A Collection of Poecilocrypticus formicophilus Geibien (Coleoptera:  Tenebrionidae) from a mound of the imported fire ant hybrid, Solenopsis invicta X richteri (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae) in Mississippi, USA. Entomological News 116: 367-368. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A. 2009. The Asian needle ant, Pachycondyla chinensis Emery (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae), reported from Alabama (online: http://midsouthentomologist.org.msstate.edu/Volume2/Vol2_2_html_files/vol2-2_003.html).  Midsouth Entomologist 2 (2) 88-89. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A. 2010.  Camponotus planatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an exotic carpenter ant found in Mississippi.  Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences 55: 187-188. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A. and  R. L. Brown.  2006. Survey of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Tombigbee National Forest in Mississippi.  Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society.  79: 325-340. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A. and  R. L. Brown. 2006. Observations on high diversity of native ant species coexisting with imported fire ants at a microspatial scale in Mississippi. Southeastern Naturalist 5: 573-586. [pdf] [web version at BioOne]

MacGown, J. A., R. L. Brown, and J. G. Hill. 2005.  An annotated list of the Pyramica (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae:  Dacetini) of Mississippi.  Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society.  78: 285–289. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A., R. L. Brown, J. G. Hill, and B. Layton. 2007. Carpenter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Camponotus) of Mississippi. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 1158: 28 pp. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A. and J. A. Forster.  2005.  A preliminary list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama.  Entomological News 116: 61-74. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A. and J. G. Hill. 2006. The Eastern ant cricket, Myrmecophilus pergandei Bruner (Orthoptera: Myrmecophilidae), reported from Mississippi, U.S.A. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences. 51: 180-182. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A. and J. G. Hill. 2009.  Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae), a new exotic ant in Mississippi.  Mississippi Academy of Sciences 54: 172-174.  [pdf]

MacGown, J. A. and J. G. Hill.  2010. A new species of Pyramica Roger (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae) from Mississippi, U.S.A. Florida Entomologist. 571-576.

MacGown, J. A. and J. G. Hill. 2010. Two new exotic pest ants, Pseudomyrmex gracilis and Monomorium floricola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected in Mississippi (available online at: http://midsouthentomologist.org.msstate.edu/Volume3/Vol3_2_html_files/Vol3_2_007.html). Midsouth Entomologist 3 (2): 106-109. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A., J.G. Hill, and M. A. Deyrup. 2007. Brachymyrmex patagonicus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an emerging pest species in the southeastern United States. Florida Entomologist 90: 457-464. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A., J. G. Hill, and M. Deyrup. 2009. Ants (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae) of the Little Ohoopee Dunes, Georgia.  Journal of Entomological Science 44: 193-197.

MacGown, J. A., J. G. Hill, L. C. Majure, and J. L. Seltzer. 2008. Rediscovery of Pogonomyrmex badius (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in mainland Mississippi, with an analysis of associated seeds and vegetation (online: http://midsouthentomologist.org.msstate.edu/Volume1/Vol1_1_html_files/vol1-1_004.html). Midsouth Entomologist 1 (1): 17-28. [pdf]

MacGown, J. A. and B. Layton.  2010. The invasive Rasberry crazy ant, Nylanderia sp. near pubens (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae), reported from Mississippi (available online at: http://midsouthentomologist.org.msstate.edu/Volume3/Vol3_1_html_files/vol3_1_008.htm).  Midsouth Entomologist Vol 3: 1:  441-47. [pdf]

MacKay, W. P. 1993. A review of the New World ants of the genus Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 22: 1-148.

MacKay, W. P. 1995. New distributional records for the ant genus Cardiocondyla in the New World (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 71: 169-172.

MacKay, W. P. 2000.  A review of the New World ants of the subgenus Myrafant, genus Leptothorax (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  Sociobiology 35: 1-31. 

Meyers, J. M. 2008b. Identification, Distribution and Control of an Invasive Pest Ant, Nylanderia sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in Texas. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A & M, University. 163 pp. [pdf]

Murphree, L. C. 1947. Alabama Ants, Description, Distribution, and Biology, with Notes on the Control of the Most Important Household Species. Unpublished M. S. Thesis, Mississippi State College, State College. 144 p.

Nelder, M. P., E. S. Paysen, P. A. Zungoli, and E. P. Benson. 2006. Emergence of the introduced ant Pachycondyla chinensis (Formicidae: Ponerinae) as a public health threat in the southeastern United States.

Pacheco, J. A. 2007. The New World ants of the genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at El Paso. i-xxi +543 pp.

Quiran, E. M., J. J. Martinez, and A. O. Bachmann. 2004. The Neotropical genus Brachymyrmex Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. Redescription of the type species, B. patagonicus Mayr, 1868; B. bruchi Forel, 1912; and B. oculatus santschi, 1919. Acta Zoologica Mexicana 20: 273-285.

Seifert, B. 2003. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien. B. Bot. Zool. 104(B): 203-338.

Shoemaker, D. D, K. G. Ross, and M. L.Arnold, 1994. Development of RAPD markers in two introduced fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri, and their application to the study of a hybrid zone. Molecular Biology 3: 531-539.

Smith, D. R. 1979.  In Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C.  Vol. 2, pp. 1323-1427. 

Smith, M. R. 1923. Two Mississippi Ants of the Subgenus Colobopsis. Psyche 30: 82-88.

Smith, M. R. 1924a. An annotated list of the ants of Mississippi (Hym.) Entomology News 35: 77-85.

Smith, M. R. 1924b. An annotated list of the ants of Mississippi (Hym.) Entomology News 35: 121-127.

Smith, M. R.  1924c.  An annotated list of the ants of Mississippi (Hym.)  Entomology News 35: 121-127. 

Smith, M. R. 1927. An additional annotated list of the ants of Mississippi with a description of a new species of Pheidole (Hym.: Formicidae). Entomology News. 38: 308-314.

Smith, M. R. 1928a.  An additional annotated list of the ants of Mississippi with a description of a new species of Aphaenogaster (Hym.:  Formicidae).  Entomology News.  39:  242

Smith, M. R. 1928b. An additional annotated list of the ants of Mississippi with a description of a new species of Aphaenogaster (Hym.: Formicidae). Entomology News. 39: 275-279.

Smith, M. R. 1931. An additional annotated list of the ants of Mississippi (Hym.: Formicidae). Entomology News. 42: 16-24.

Smith, M. R. 1932. An additional annotated list of the ants of Mississippi (Hym.: Formicidae). Entomology News. 42: 157-160.

Smith, M. R. 1934. Ponerine ants of the genus Euponera in the United States. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 27: 558-564.

Smith, M. R. 1942. The Legionary ants of the United States belonging to Eciton subgenus Neivamyrmex Borgmeier. The American Midland Naturalist 27: 537-590.

Smith, M. R. 1957.  Revision of the genus Stenamma Westwood in America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The American Midland Naturalist 57:  133-174.

Smith, M. R. 1965. House-infesting ants of the Eastern United States, their recognition, biology, and economic importance. United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bullitin No. 1326: i-105.

Smith, M. R., and M. W. Wing 1955(1954). Redescription of Discothyrea testacea Roger, a little-known North American ant, with notes on the genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 62: 105-112.

Snelling G. C. and R. R. Snelling. 2007. New synonymy, new species, new keys to Neivamyrmex army ants of the United States. In: Snelling, R. R., P. S. Ward, and B. L. Fisher (editors), Advances in ant systematics. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 459-550.

Snelling, R. R. 1988.  Taxonomic notes on Nearctic species of Camponotus, Subgenus Myrmentoma (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae).  pp. 55-78 in J.C. Trager (ed). Advances in Myrmecology. E.J. Brill: New York, New York, USA.

Snelling, R. R.  1995. Systematics of Nearctic ants of the genus Dorymyrmex (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae). Contr. Sci. (Los Angel.).  454: 1-14.

Snelling, R. R. and J. T. Longino. 1992. Revisionary notes on the fungus-growing ants of the genus Cyphomyrmex, rimosus-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Attini). Pages 479-494 in Quintero, D. and A. Aiello. Insects of Panama and Mesoamerica: selected studies. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 692 pp.

Steiner, F. M., B. C. Schlick-Steiner, J. C. Trager, K. Moder, M. Sanetra, E. Christian, and C. Stauffler. 2006. Tetramorium tsushimae, a new invasive ant in North America. Biological Invasions 8: 117-123.

Schlick-Steiner, B. C., F. M. Steiner, K. Moder, B. Seifert, M.Sanetra, E. Dyreson, C. Stauffer, and E. Christian. 2006. A multidisciplinary approach reveals cryptic diversity in Western Palearctic Tetramorium ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 259-273.

Storz, S. R. and W. R. Tschinkel. 2004. Distribution, spread, and ecological associations of the introduced ant Pheidole obscurithorax in the southeastern United States. Journal of Insect Science 4: 1-11.

Tabor, S. W. 1998. The World of the Harvester Ants. Texas A&M Univ. Press, College Station, TX.

Thompson, C. R. 1989. The thief ants, Solenopsis molesta group, of Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 72(2): 268-283.

Trager, J. C. 1984.  A revision of the genus Nylanderia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the continental United States. Sociobiology 9:  49-162. 

Trager, J. C. 1988. A revision of the Conomyrma (Hymenoptera: Fomicidae) from the southeastern United States, especially Florida, with keys to the species. Florida Entomologist 71: 11-29.

Trager, J. C. 1991.  A revision of the fire ants, Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae:  Myrmicinae).  Journal of the New York Entomological Society 99:  142-198

Trager, J. C. and C. Johnson. 1988.  The ant genus Leptogenys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Ponerinae) in the United States. pp. 29-33 in J.C. Trager (ed). Advances in Myrmecology. E.J. Brill: New York, New York, USA.

Trager, J. C., J. A. MacGown and M. D. Trager. 2007. Revision of the Nearctic endemic Formica pallidefulva group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). In: Snelling, R. R., P. S. Ward, and B. L. Fisher (editors), Advances in ant systematics. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 610-636.

Tynes, J. S. 1964. Biological and ecological studies of ants of the subgenus Colobopsis in Mississippi. M. S. Thesis, Mississippi State College, State College. i-vii + 73 pp.

Umphrey, G. J. 1996.  Morphometric discrimination among sibling species in the fulva-rudis-texana complex of the ant genus Aphaenogaster (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae).  Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:  528-559.

Van Pelt, A. F. 1958. The ecology of the ants of Welaka Reserve Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)Part II: annotated list. The American Midland Naturalist 59: 1-60.

Ward, P. S.  1985. The Nearctic species of the genus Pseudomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Quaest. Entomol.  21:  pp. 209-246.

Ward, P. S. 2005. A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936: 1-68.

Warren, L.O., and E.P. Rouse. 1969. "The ants of Arkansas.". Univ. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. No. 742, 68 p.

Watkins, J. F. 1985.  The identification and distribution of the army ants of the United States of American (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ecitoninae).  Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58:  479-502.

Wesson, L. G., and Wesson, R. G. 1940. A collection of ants from south central Ohio, American Midland Naturalist 21: 89-103.

Wetterer, J. K. 2008. Technomyrmex difficilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae (in the West Indies). Florida Entomologist 91: 428-430.

Wetterer, J. K. 2008.  Worldwide spread of the longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae).  Myrmecological News 11:  137-149.

Wetterer, J. K. 2010. Worldwide spread of the graceful twig ant, Pseudomyrmex gracilis (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae).  Florida Entomologist 93: 535-540.

Wheeler, G. C. and J. Wheeler. 1978.  Brachymyrmex musculus, a new ant in the United States.  Entomological News 89: 189-190. 

Wilson, E. O. 1950.A new Leptothorax from Alabama (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche  57: 128-130.

Wilson, E. O. 1953. The ecology of some North American dacetine ants. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 46: 479-497.

Wilson, E. O.  2003.  Pheidole in the New World, a Dominant, Hyperdiverse Ant Genus.  Harvard University Press.  Cambridge, MA, London, England.  794 pp.

Yoshimura M. and B. L. Fisher. 2012.  A Revision of Male Ants of the Malagasy Amblyoponinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with Resurrections of the Genera Stigmatomma and Xymmer. PLoS ONE 7(3): e33325. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033325