Glossary for Silk Texiles
artifacts – anything made or modified by humans, both prehistoric and modern
block printing – a type of printing in which individual wooden or steel blocks are carved and then used to transfer the layers of the image one color at a time onto the fabric
cochineal (Dactylopius) - a red dye made from scale insects that feed on cactus
cocoons – the silk covering of pupa of Lepidoptera that are made from silk threads produced by the caterpillars
drop-spindles – hanging shafts weighted at the bottom, used for spinning fibers into thread
eri silk – silk produced from the cocoons of Samia ricini (Saturniidae), also called endi silk
fagara silk – silk produced from the cocoons of Attacus atlas (Saturniidae)
hand-embroidery – a technique of using early (pre-machine) hand sewn stitches, made using a needle and thread or yarn, to add embellishments to fabric.
hand-loom – a loom which is not power operated, that holds tension on the warp strings, as the weft is interwoven, making the fabric.
kantha style – an embroidery style from India, which uses a running stich to add detail to a textile
muga silk – silk produced from the cocoons of Antheraea assamensis (Saturniidae)
reeled silk – silk fibers made from unbroken cocoons
Skeins – hanks or bundles of spun or reeled thread or yarn
spun yarn - made from the twisting of fibers to form yarn
stick lac - branches of trees coated with a resin (lac) produced by scale insects (Laccifer lacca) and used to produce a red dye
tasar silk – silk produced from the cocoons of Antheraea paphia and A. proylei
temperate tasar silk – silk produced from the cocoons of Antheraea proylei, reared on oaks, also called oak tasar in India
textiles – pieces of fabric made from woven (warp and weft) fibers
tropical tasar silk - silk produced from the cocoons of Antheraea paphia
turmeric (Curcuma longa) – a plant in the ginger family, whose root is used for seasoning food and dye production, when used as a dye it is fugitive (fades with light exposure)
tussah – silk similar to tasar, but produced in China from the cocoons of Antheraea pernyi
warp – the threads that run lengthwise in a textile, they hold the tension in the fabric as it
is being woven.
weft – the threads that are woven into the warp to make a textile
weft brocading – a decorative technique made by adding decorative threads into the weft along with the structural threads as the fabric is being made.