Key to Ponera species in the southeastern United States (from Creighton 1950 and William MacKay's key on internet: www3.utep.edu/leb/antgenera.htm )
Key to workers
1        Larger in size, the total length greater than 3 mm, HW (head width) greater than 0.42 mm, or CI (cephalic index=HW X 100/ HL (head length) is 76 or less, or both; hairs on gastral dorsum vary in size from 0.41-0.1 mm; color medium to dark brown (very common ants in litter)
  Smaller, total length less than 2.5 mm, HW either 0.35 mm, or less or CI is 79 or greater, or both; the hairs on the first gastral tergite about 0.02 mm and bristly in appearance; color yellow to pale brown (uncommon, in leaf litter)
Key to Queens
1       Compound eye relatively large with the maximum diameter approximately 0.18 mm and diameter greater than the base of the mandible and the anterior edge of eye; color medium to dark brown
  Eye smaller in size, maximum diameter approximately 0.06 mm and about equal to the distance between the distance between the base of mandible and the anterior edge of eye; color yellow to pale brown