Key to Pachycondyla species in the southeastern United States (from Creighton 1950 and unpublished key to Ponerinae Ants of the U.S. by Mark Deyrup and Lloyd Davis, 2003)
1
Smaller, length of worker 5 mm or less and queen length up to 6.5 mm; mandibles usually with 6 teeth (counting apical tooth) and rarely with a partially developed seventh tooth (eastern U.S.)
...2
Larger, length of worker 8 mm or more and queen length up to 13 mm; mandibles usually with 8 or more teeth and/or denticles (rarely with only 7) (more western, LA and TX)
...4
2(1)    Basal area of mandible with a circular or almost circular pit (fovea) dorsolaterally
  Basal area of mandible without a fovea dorsolaterally
...3
  3(2)

Mesopleura smooth and shiny; propodeum strongly depressed below mesonotum; worker eye large, with many facets (introduced, mid-east coast south to Alabama)

  Mesopleura finely punctulate; propodeum not strongly depressed; worker eye small, with few facets
4(1)     Head with fine irregular longitudinal striae with punctures in between them; in profile the dorsal outline of the alitrunk forms a continuous convexity, this includes the pronotum, mesonotum, and propodeal dorsum; metanotal groove not strongly impressed; pronotum with strong lateral margin; small size (alitrunk < 3.6)
  Head with fine, dense punctation, but lacking striae; in profile the alitrunk does not form a continuous convexity, the propodeum clearly separated from mesonotum; metanotal groove deeply impressed; pronotum without lateral margins or they are indistinct; larger species