Key to Pachycondyla species in the southeastern United States (from Creighton 1950 and unpublished key to Ponerinae Ants of the U.S. by Mark Deyrup and Lloyd Davis, 2003)
Smaller, length of worker 5 mm or less and queen length up to 6.5 mm; mandibles usually with 6 teeth (counting apical tooth) and rarely with a partially developed seventh tooth (eastern U.S.)
Larger, length of worker 8 mm or more and queen length up to 13 mm; mandibles usually with 8 or more teeth and/or denticles (rarely with only 7) (more western, LA and TX)
2(1)    Basal area of mandible with a circular or almost circular pit (fovea) dorsolaterally
  Basal area of mandible without a fovea dorsolaterally

Mesopleura smooth and shiny; propodeum strongly depressed below mesonotum; worker eye large, with many facets (introduced, mid-east coast south to Alabama)

  Mesopleura finely punctulate; propodeum not strongly depressed; worker eye small, with few facets
4(1)     Head with fine irregular longitudinal striae with punctures in between them; in profile the dorsal outline of the alitrunk forms a continuous convexity, this includes the pronotum, mesonotum, and propodeal dorsum; metanotal groove not strongly impressed; pronotum with strong lateral margin; small size (alitrunk < 3.6)
  Head with fine, dense punctation, but lacking striae; in profile the alitrunk does not form a continuous convexity, the propodeum clearly separated from mesonotum; metanotal groove deeply impressed; pronotum without lateral margins or they are indistinct; larger species