Keys to Dolichoderus species in or possible in MS and AL (from Creighton 1950 and MacKay 1993)

1   Cephalic foveolae coarse, deep and very close together with surface between them forming a rugo-reticulate pattern; scapes with numerous short erect hairs on anterior surfaces
  Cephalic foveolae shallow, often replaced at vertex by small punctures, foveolae well separated with surface between them delicately shagreened, never forming a rugo-reticulate pattern; scapes usually without erect hairs, occasionally 1 or 2 present
...2
2(1)     The dorsal surface of the propodeum subquadrate, less than 1.2 times as long as broad; ant color is a uniform brownish black to piceous
  The dorsal surface of the propodeum distinctly longer than broad, more than 1.4 times longer than broad; ants concolorous dark brown to bicolored
...3
3(2)

Color either concolorous dark brown, or if bicolored, then head and mesosoma usually brown and the gaster dark brown; dorsum of head densely punctate, mesosoma mostly punctate except dorsal face of propodeum, which has deep, coarse, close-set foveolae that form a rugoreticulate pattern, and dorsum of gaster punctate and feebly shining; sparse erect hairs present on most of body except legs and scapes

  Color usually bicolored with the head and alitrunk reddish and gaster dark brown; dorsum of head, mesosoma, dorsal face of propodeum, and gaster finely punctate; lacking erect hairs on body except on ventral surface of gaster and occasionally 1 or 2 on scape